The PostScript (PS) language was invented by Adobe Systems between 1982 and 1984. It has been standardized as PostScript Level 1 , PostScript Level 2 , PostScript 3  and in various language supplements. While PostScript has lost popularity in desktop publishing and as a document exchange format to PDF, it is still the preferred page description language for laser printers. The term `page description' may be misleading though, as PostScript is capable of much more than just creating vector graphics. PostScript is a stack-based, Turing-complete programming language consisting of almost 400 operators for arithmetics, stack and graphic manipulation and various data types such as arrays or dictionaries. Technically spoken, access to a PostScript interpreter can already be classified as code execution because any algorithmic function can theoretically be implemented in PostScript. Certainly, without access to the network stack or additional operating system libraries, possibilities are limited to arbitrary mathematical calculations like mining bitcoins. However, PostScript is capable of basic file system I/O to store frequently used code, graphics or font files. Originally designed as a feature, the dangers of such functionality were limited before printers got interconnected and risks were mainly discussed in the context of host-based PostScript interpreters. In this regard, Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) is also noteworthy as it can be included in other file formats to be interpreted on the host such as LaTeX documents. Like PJL and PCL, PostScript supports bidirectional communication been host and printer. Example PostScript code to echo Hello world to stdout is given below:
%! (Hello world) print
While most printer manufacturers have implemented (as hardware modules or in software) and licensed original ‘Adobe PostScript’, Brother and Kyocera use their own PostScript clones: Br-Script and KPDL. Such flavours of the PostScript language are not 100% compatible, especially concerning security features like exiting the server loop. PostScript can be used for a variety of attacks such as denial of service (for example, through infinite loops), print job manipulation and retention as well as gaining access to the printer's file system.